Lithium-ion Battery Chemistry:
The chemical formula of lithium-ion battery is shown below.
It consists of two basic elements, sodium and potassium. These elements are combined into one compound called lithium metal or LiCoO 2 .
The main function of these compounds is to provide energy storage capacity and power generation capability. They have been used in many different applications such as portable electronic devices, automotive batteries, medical equipment etc..
Li-Ion Battery Construction:
In order to make a lithium-ion battery, it requires several steps. First, there must be the electrolyte solution which contains a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.
Then, there is the negative electrode (anode) containing positive ions and cathode containing negative ions. The anodes and cathodes are connected together with electrodes separator between them. The positive and negative sides of the battery are separated by an insulator. This is known as the separator plate. The electrolyte solution is pumped through the separator plate at high pressure to separate out the lithium from other substances like water, carbon dioxide etc. When all chemicals are mixed properly, they form a liquid that becomes lithium metal. The liquid is then cooled down to create a solid state of lithium-ion battery.
What is So Special about Li-Ion Batteries?
This type of battery has been in use for a while now. It consists of two electrodes and a liquid that acts as a conductor allowing the charge to move between the two electrodes. One of the key advantages is that they have a very high energy density compared to other types of batteries. They can be designed to last for quite a long period of time without having to be replaced. But if you do need to replace them, they are quite cheap and can be bought from any store.
Lithium-ion batteries have been used for a wide range of purposes. They are very common in portable devices such as mobile phones and laptops.
They are also used in electric vehicles and in spacecraft due to their high energy density.
Research is being done to try and improve the capabilities of these types of batteries. Some improvements that are being looked into are to make the electrolyte more stable, so that it doesn’t have any adverse effects on the rest of the battery.
Another thing being worked on is trying to expand the life of the battery and how many re-charge cycles it can handle before losing its ability to hold a charge.
The popular types of batteries that we use nowadays are the lead-acid battery, nickel-cadmium battery and lithium-ion battery.
The lead-acid battery is very common in cars and other vehicles. It consists of two electrodes immersed in sulfuric acid.
The electrodes are made from Lead which is the negative electrode (or anode) and lead dioxide which is the positive electrode (or cathode). When the battery is connected to a circuit, a chemical reaction occurs causing electrons to flow through the circuit which is then used to power the car.
The advantages of lead-acid batteries are that they are very cheap, easy to manufacture and have a high energy density. The disadvantages are that if you discharge them too much or too quickly, they become unusable, they can also be dangerous if the acid is exposed to the eyes or skin.
The nickel-cadmium battery is also known as the NiCad. This has electrodes made from nickel and cadmium with a potassium hydroxide solution as its electrolyte.
When connected to a circuit, the electrons flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode. These are commonly found in cordless tools such as drills and other power tools.
Sources & references used in this article:
- Mathematical modeling of lithium-ion and nickel battery systems (PM Gomadam, JW Weidner, RA Dougal… – Journal of power …, 2002 – Elsevier)
- 30 years of lithium‐ion batteries (M Li, J Lu, Z Chen, K Amine – Advanced Materials, 2018 – Wiley Online Library)
- Unsupported claims of ultrafast charging of LiFePO 4 Li-ion batteries (K Zaghib, JB Goodenough, A Mauger, C Julien – JPS, 2009 – ui.adsabs.harvard.edu)