DeWalt Flexvolt Vs Metabo HPT MultiVolt Battery:
The most popular and efficient battery technology in the world today is lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries. They are rechargeable and have a high energy density, which makes them very convenient for many applications such as portable electronics, electric vehicles, lighting, medical devices etc. However, Li-Ion batteries do not last forever and eventually need to be replaced due to their short life span. Lithium ion batteries are becoming less and less common because they require too much power to charge up and discharge down, which is why there are now other types of rechargeable batteries such as nickel metal hydride (NiMH), lead acid or even lithium polymer cells. These new technologies have been developed over the past few years but it will take some time before these newer battery types become widely available.
In addition to being expensive, Li-Ion batteries have several drawbacks. For example, Li-Ion batteries cannot be recharged quickly enough to replace those that wear out prematurely. Also, if the battery does get damaged it is difficult to repair without special tools and specialized skills. Another drawback of Li-Ion batteries is that they are prone to catching fire when exposed to extreme temperatures like those found inside a car engine or during a crash. To make matters worse, Li-Ion batteries carry the risk of exploding on impact when they are damaged.
In fact, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission recalled almost 6 million Li-Ion battery packs back in 2006 for this very reason.
However, the most recent and perhaps most dangerous drawback of Li-Ion batteries is that they can suddenly burst into flames without warning. In fact, there have been several cases where people were severely injured when their laptop batteries caught fire.
Lithium polymer batteries are different in that the electrolyte is in a gel rather than in a liquid state. This makes them less likely to leak and therefore less likely to cause a fire if they are damaged.
Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries are a step up from traditional batteries. They are rechargeable and have higher energy densities than lead acid types, but they cannot compete with the almost limitless energy of Li-Ion batteries.
Lead acid batteries are the oldest rechargeable battery technology in existence. They are cheap and can be charged and discharged thousands of times before they wear out. The only problem is that they do not have high energy densities. However, a lead acid battery can provide a peak power output of around 15 amperes (amps), which is enough to power an electric vehicle with a lead-acid battery weighing in at around 300 pounds. It’s interesting to note that the first portable electrical device was actually a lead-acid battery.
In 1800, Italian physicist Alessandro Volta developed the ‘voltaic pile’ electric battery by stacking up zinc and copper plates with an acid solution between them.
Fuel cells are devices that produce electricity directly from a fuel and an outside source of oxygen such as the air. The only waste product is water, making them extremely ‘green’ energy devices. However, they are very expensive to produce and aren’t available on the mass market just yet.
The main types of fuel cells are:
A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a type of fuel cell that operates at high temperatures in order to produce a high-performance energy conversion device. The most common type of fuel cell, SOFCs can be used to run cars, trucks, boats, buses, emergency lighting and more.
A proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is the most common type of fuel cell. It consists of two separate chambers divided by a proton exchange membrane. These two chambers contain hydrogen gas on one side and oxygen from the air on the other. When these two gases mix, they create an electric current that can be used to power vehicles and buildings. The only byproducts are heat and water, which are both safe.
A phosphate regenerative fuel cell (PRFC) is a type of fuel cell that has two main parts: an anode and a cathode. Hydrogen is fed into the anode where it mixes with oxygen and creates electricity. The spent fuel then flows to the cathode where it is combined with oxygen to create water.
A molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is a type of fuel cell that has an external burner that heats up a mixture of carbonate and lithium chloride. This molten salt is then fed through to the electrochemical chamber where it produces an electric current. The spent fuel then cools down and the cycle begins again.
Lightning is a natural luminous electrical discharge caused by a buildup of charge in a cloud. It can also occur within a cloud. Lightning is over five times hotter than the surface of the sun. The average bolt of lightning contains around one trillion (1,000,000,000,000) watts of power. It can heat up the air around it to about 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
This causes the surrounding air to expand explosively and create thunder. The shockwave of the thunder often exceeds 230 decibels, which is more than enough to permanently damage human hearing.
There are two types of lightning: cloud-to-cloud and cloud-to-ground. Cloud-to-ground is the most common variety, striking the ground anywhere in the world approximately 100 times per second. It occurs when a positively charged stream of electrons from the sky called a ‘stepped leader’ pokes down toward the Earth’s surface. The surrounding air carries a negative charge and when these two opposites meet, bang! The incredible heat and light generated is what we see as lightning.
The different colors of lightning often result from different gases in the air. Red lighting is caused by nitrogen, while blue lighting is caused byoxygen. White and yellow lightning are caused by a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen.
There are many myths about lightning. One popular myth is that if you meet a person with a disability they might be bound to lose it if a bolt of lightning strikes nearby. This is clearly untrue, given that lightning can cause a loss of a limb or even death.
Another myth is that if you hold a blade of grass between your finger and the cloud it will make a louder noise when it strikes. This is also untrue. The loudness has no bearing on how close you are to the strike.
A third myth is that if you take a metal rod and connect it to the ground, then lightning cannot harm you. This is untrue, as you are still at risk of being harmed if the rod is struck.
A fourth myth is that lightning never strikes the same place twice. This is untrue. Lightning often strikes the same place repeatedly, especially if the place has a good channel for electricity to flow through.
Lightning can be harnessed to create an electric current. It can also be harnessed in batteries or power cells.
Magnesium is a light-colored metal that burns readily. It helps to create flames that are bright, but not too hot.
A magnet is an object that produces a magnetic field. A “magnetic field” is a place where metal objects are pulled toward the magnet. The Earth itself produces a magnetic field, which is how compass needles point north.
A magnet has two important properties: its strength and its polarity. A magnet’s strength is how strongly it pulls on metals. Some magnets are stronger than others. Most magnets have two poles, a positive and a negative. The North Pole of a magnet is labeled “North” because it attracts the North Pole of the Earth.
Since the Earth itself is a giant magnet, this causes the North Pole of the Earth’s pole to point toward the North Pole of the magnet.
Most magnets can be pulled away from the Earth’s pole simply by lifting them up. However, they will always point back to the Earth’s own North or South Pole.
The Earth itself produces a magnetic field around itself. This field is so strong that it prevents most things from escaping the surface of the planet. This is why, when you are on a plane and there is turbulence above you, the plane may start shaking violently. The extremely weak magnetic field of the plane cannot compete with the Earth’s strong one. As a result, the plane may be forced into dangerous positions within the Earth’s own magnetic field.
The Earth’s magnetic field is caused by the flow of electrically charged material in the Earth’s core. The positively charged and negatively charged materials flow through the core, creating a magnetic field that extends out past the atmosphere.
A human-made magnet is created by using a magnet, such as a bar magnet or a horseshoe magnet, and moving charges near it. The charges move because they are either on the surface of the magnet itself, such as iron filings, or by using an electric current close to the magnet.
These types of magnets can be created by moving charges or using magnets. There are two types of magnets: natural and human-made.
A lightning storm is a big buildup of electrons that have been stripped from the atmosphere. As they build up, the electrons begin to bounce into each other, like rubber bands. The more buildup, the more potential there is for a lightning strike to occur.
Batteries produce electrons because of a chemical reaction inside them. This reaction uses up some of the electrons, so they cannot be put back into the battery. Instead, they flow out of the battery’s two terminals, creating an electric current that can power other devices.
An electric current is a flow of electrons through a conductor, such as copper wire. It creates a magnetic field around the wire, which can be harnessed to do work.
When you rub your feet on the carpet, tiny electrons are pushed from your soles into the copper in the carpet. They aren’t all absorbed by it, though. As you lift your foot up, more electrons are pushed off of it. The imbalance of charge causes a flow of electrons to continue in that same direction. It’s called a current.
Electricity is a flow of electrons. It comes in two types, direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC). In a direct current, the direction of the electrons never changes. In an alternating current, the electrons changes direction back and forth very rapidly. This is called AC electricity because the direction changes alternately.
The most important fact to remember is that like charges repel and opposite charges attract.
Electricity is a flow of charges. It comes in two types, positive and negative. Positive charges are represented by the symbol “+”, and negative charges are represented by the symbol “-“. In fact, these symbols are used for a lot more than just charges. They can represent many different things in electronics.
The conductivity of an element tells you how well it allows electrons to flow through it. A good conductor is something that allows electrons to flow through it very easily, such as copper. A poor conductor is something that doesn’t allow any electrons to flow through it at all, such as a block of wood. Most elements fall in the middle and are called semiconductors.
Some metals, such as gold and silver, are great conductors of heat while others, such as wood and plastic, are poor conductors.
When warm objects are placed next to cold objects, heat flows from the warm object to the cold object. This temperature difference causes heat to flow and is called thermal conduction. Heat always flows from a region of high temperature to a region of lower temperature.
When you breathe on a piece of glass, it gets warmer.
Because you are pumping tiny little particles of heat into it. These particles are called phonons.
Even when it is cold outside, there is still a lot of energy in the air. This energy is called thermal energy. It flows from warmer objects to cooler objects.
There are three types of convection currents: forced, natural, and gravitational.
When you drop a rock into a still pond, ripples form around where the rock hit the water. These ripples spread out and then dissipate. The rock caused these ripples because of the force of gravity, and that is called a forced convection current.
When air heats up it becomes less dense and rises. When it rises, cool air moves in to take its place, which heats up and rises also. This creates a repeating cycle of rising and falling air. This steady rising and falling of air is called a natural convection current. Hot air balloons use natural convection currents to stay aloft.
When light rays hit an object, they bounce off of it or are absorbed by it. Depending on the color and the type of material, the light might be reflected, transmitted, or absorbed.
Some materials reflect all wavelengths of light no matter what their color is. Such materials are called mirrors. They reflect all the incident light into your eye. Mirrors appear to have a metallic surface because they are really very thin sheets of metal!
Some materials only reflect certain wavelengths. Such materials are called chromatic reflectors. They reflect certain colors and allow others to pass through. This is why printed pages appear to have black text on a white background; the paper is mostly transparent to the eye, but reflects the particular wavelengths that correspond to the color “white”.
Some materials only allow certain wavelengths to pass through, while reflecting all others. Such materials are called filters. They let through certain colors and block out the rest.
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