Milwaukee Battery Chart
The following table shows the capacity (mAh) rating of different types of batteries used in electric vehicles. For example, the capacity of a 3Ah lithium ion battery is stated as 3200 mAh. The capacity of a 4Ah lithium ion battery is indicated as 4250 mAh. These are all nominal capacities and may vary slightly depending on manufacturing processes or other factors.
Type Capacity (mAh) Lithium Ion Battery 3Ah 6000 Lithium Ion Battery 4Ah 4250 Lead Acid Battery 1C 1000 NiMH Battery 1C 600 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery 1C 300 Lithium Polymer (LiPo) Rechargeable Batteries LiPO 1200 LiPoly 800 Lead Acid Batteries 1C 500 NiMH Batteries 1C 400 Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries 1C 200
Battery Life Comparison Table
Lithium Ion Batteries
A typical car battery uses lithium ion cells. They have a higher energy density than lead acid batteries but lower energy density than nickel metal hydride batteries. A lithium ion cell provides more power per unit volume of space than any other type of battery, making them ideal for applications where weight is not an issue such as small cars and motorcycles. However, they do require frequent charging which limits their use in some applications. For example, only one or two electric vehicles can be recharged at the same time in a conventional home’s electrical circuit.
Lead Acid Batteries
A lead acid battery uses lead and lead oxide plates immersed in a solution of water and sulfuric acid. The battery can provide 10 to 20 recharge cycles before its efficiency drops to 80% of its initial performance.
Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries
Nickel metal hydride batteries use a hydroxide solution rather than a sulfuric acid solution. This gives them higher energy density than lead acid batteries and they can provide more charge cycles. However, they are more expensive than lead acid batteries which is why they are not used in electric vehicles. They are more commonly used in cordless power tools such as drills and chain saws.
Lithium-ion batteries are rechargeable batteries that use lithium ions to conduct electric current. The higher energy density makes them lighter and smaller than other types of rechargeable batteries. They also can provide more charge cycles than lead acid batteries but offer fewer charge cycles than nickel metal hydride batteries.
Nickel-Cadmium (NICAD) batteries are not as common as they once were but are still used in some cordless telephones and other low-drain applications such as computer backup systems. The battery cells are made from nickel oxide and cadmium metal. The battery provides a relatively large number of charge cycles and has a high energy density but is not rechargeable. It must be disposed once its energy is depleted.
Lead-acid batteries provide from 90 to 120 charge cycles before their efficiency drops to 80% of its original performance. They also have a low energy density and are susceptible to external heat, which can cause the battery to expand and release fumes. These batteries are often used in the starter of cars that don’t require much power such as older vehicles. They can be used in a electric vehicle but it would require a large and heavy battery to travel any distance.
A lead-acid battery uses lead and lead oxide plates immersed in a solution of water and sulfuric acid. The battery can provide 10 to 20 recharge cycles before its efficiency drops to 80% of its original performance.
Rechargeable Battery Comparison Table
Lead acid batteries are the oldest type of rechargeable battery and the heaviest. They are relatively cheap but require a longer charge time than lithium-ion batteries. They can also be damaged by frequent discharging beyond 80%. If this happens, the battery can become irreversibly discharged and useless.
Lead-Acid Batteries Advantages
Good for continuous, high-drain applications such as electric vehicles.
Can produce large amounts of power in short periods of time.
Inexpensive and can provide 100 to 200 charge cycles depending on the quality of the battery.
Can be mounted in any position.
Can be fully charged or discharged without causing any damage.
Lead-Acid Batteries Disadvantages
Heavy and bulky.
Slow to charge. It can take up to 12 hours to fully charge a lead-acid battery. This is due to the low energy density and the need for the battery to be fully charged.
Susceptible to external heat. If the battery is regularly overcharged, it will release poisonous fumes which can cause damage to the eyes and respiratory system.
Takes up a lot of space. This is a consideration for an electric vehicle where space is limited.
NICAD Batteries Advantages
Lightweight and smaller than lead-acid batteries.
High energy density allows for short charge times. It can reach full charge in one hour.
Inexpensive and can provide between 80 to 100 charge cycles depending on the quality of the battery.
NICAD Batteries Disadvantages
Susceptible to heat and a safety hazard if damaged.
Cannot be stored for long periods of time. It can be stored for up to one year if its charge is 50% or less. It should always be stored at 20 degrees Celsius or lower.
Can explode or release toxic materials if damaged, overheated or overcharged.
LITHIUM-ION Batteries Advantages
Extremely lightweight and compact.
Provides high energy density with low weight. It also charges quickly. Most models can be fully charged in 1.5 hours.
Can be stored for long periods of time without losing charge. A charged battery can last up to 5 years in storage.
Relatively expensive. However, prices have dropped as demand has increased.
Must be kept cool. If the battery is stored at high temperatures, its life can be shortened. Heat can also prevent the battery from charging to maximum capacity.
Susceptible to external shorts. Sparks or shards of metal can cause the battery to overheat and possibly ignite.
Lithium-ion batteries are safer than NICAD batteries but they can still be dangerous. They can catch fire or explode if damaged, overcharged, or improperly disposed of.
Rechargeable Batteries and the Environment
It is a common misconception that rechargeable batteries are better for the environment. While they can prevent the waste from non-rechargeable batteries, they can still have a negative effect on the environment.
When manufacturing rechargeable batteries:
Copper, aluminum, and other raw materials are mined from the earth. This can cause toxic pollution and destroy animal habitats.
Faulty batteries are sometimes incinerated which can release toxic fumes into the atmosphere.
When thrown away, rechargeable batteries can leak toxic materials which can leach into the ground and waterways.
However, proper recycling and disposal methods can prevent these issues. In fact, most rechargeable batteries have a star logo that signifies their recyclability. If all rechargeable batteries are recycled:
The raw materials can be reused to make new batteries. This prevents the extraction of additional raw materials from the earth.
Old batteries can be recycled to recover metals that can be reused. Copper, for example, can be recovered and used to make new batteries. This prevents toxic metals such as lead and mercury from entering the environment.
Rechargeable batteries can also be disposed of by an approved recycler. Just like with regular batteries, the copper and other metals can be extracted for reuse.
The bottom line is that rechargeable batteries can still be harmful to the environment if not disposed of or recycled properly. Always make sure to recycle rechargeable batteries or take them to an approved recycler.
Battery Charging Station
You can charge your spare vehicle battery using a battery charging station. To do this:
Choose a charging station based on the battery you have.
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